Under the American Disabilities Act (ADA), pre-employment physical examinations may not be conducted until after a conditional offer of employment has been extended to the applicant. Consequently, only applicants who are otherwise qualified for employment may be subject to a pre-employment physical examination.
Every applicant for a particular position must be subject to the same pre-employment physical examination. The examining physician provides input in determining the essential functions of the job. This may involve witnessing existing employees perform the job through simulations. For each position, the examining physician should be given a written statement as to the essential mental and physical functions of the job. The physician then will conduct an examination of the applicant to determine whether he or she can perform those functions.
The ADA defines a qualified person with disabilities as someone who can perform the essential functions of the job, with or without reasonable accommodations.
Examples that might constitute reasonable accommodations include (a) job restructuring; (b) part-time and/or modified work schedules; (c) reassignment to a vacant position; (d) acquisition or modification of equipment, devices; (e) appropriate adjustment or modification of examinations, training, materials or policies; and (f) the provision of qualified readers or interpreters.
Although the employer should elicit and consider input from the examining physician, ultimately the determination as to whether an accommodation is reasonable must be made by the employer. In making this determination, suggestions offered by the applicant should be considered as well.
Employment physical examinations may include health inquiries and physical examinations, including psychological tests, and physical or mental health assessments. Drug testing and physical ability tests may also be required as a condition of employment.
There are several types of drugs tests that candidates for employment may be asked to take. The types of drug tests which show the presence of drugs or alcohol include urine drug screen, hair drug or alcohol testing, saliva drug screen, and sweat drug screen.
Pre employment physicals are of outmost importance for the employer as it will pinpoint conditions that predispose the applicant to injury. This information aids the employer in Managing future risks, Setting a foundation for prevention procedures, Limiting future liability by establishing the employee’s pre existing medical condition when hired, and Identifying employee’s lack of ability to correctly perform job functions (can pose a risk to themselves and others) thus promoting workplace safety. We currently perform Pre Employment Physicals on a Walk-In basis for Residents of Maryland (MD), Washington DC, and Northern Virginia (VA).